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ZAKON PAULINÓW Print E-mail

01-07-2sm-eksponaty_nr_2018.jpg"Solus cum Deo Solo" - "Sam na sam z Bogiem", to duchowa dewiza streszcząjąca  głęboki fundament zewnętrznej działalności apostolskiej Zakonu Paulinów, czyli Zakonu Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika. Zakon Paulinów powstał w XII wieku na ziemi węgierskiej, i swoje korzenie wywodzi z pustelników i z ich surowego eremickiego stylu życia.

Pierwszą paulińską wspólnotę zgromadził, z rozproszonych po lasach, kniejach i grotach skalnych pustelników, Bartłomiej, biskup Pecs. W 1225 roku dla tej eremickiej wspólnoty wybudował klasztor i kościół pod wezwaniem św. Jakuba na górze Patacs. Aby ustalić ich określony styl życia, nadał im bardzo prostą regułę. Nie była to jednak jedyna wspólnota eremitów jednocząca się w zakon. 

 

01-07-6sm-picture690.jpgNiemal równocześnie kanonik kapituły katedralnej w Estergom /Ostrzyhom/, bł. Euzebiusz, również gromadził wokół siebie pustelników i dla nich w 1250 r. wybudował klasztor z kościołem św. Krzyża na Górze Pilis. Św. Paweł Pierwszy PustelnikWspólnota ta obrała za swojego patrona Św. Pawła z Teb, pierwszego ze znanych w tradycji pustelników, żyjącego na pustyni w Egipcie na przełomie III i IV w., którego żywot opisał św. Hieronim. Z upływem czasu obie wspólnoty, tj. wspólnota z góry Patach i ta z Góry Pilis utworzyły unię.

01-07-5sm-picture707.jpgNowo utworzona społeczność zakonna od 1263 r. przyjęła nazwę "Braci Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika". W roku 1308 kardynał Gentili, legat papieża Klemensa V, nadał zakonowi w imieniu Stolicy Apostolskiej regułę św. Augustyna i oficjalnie zatwierdził Zakon Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika. 01-07-7sm-picture708.jpgZakon rozprzestrzenił się na ziemi węgierskiej i półwyspie bałkańskim, w Polsce, Austrii, Niemczech. Znany też był także we Włoszech, Francji, Hiszpanii, i Portugalii, skąd dotarł do Ameryki Południowej wraz z pierwszymi pionierami chrześcijaństwa.
Matka Boża JasnogórskaNa ziemie polskie Paulini przybyli z Węgier, z klasztoru Marianosztra /Nasza Pani/. Sprowadził ich wielki protektor zakonu książę Władysław Opolczyk. Paulini przybyli w 1382 roku do Częstochowy, otrzymując wzgórze jasnogórskie z niewielkim kościołem pod wezwaniem Matki Bożej. W nim wkrótce umieścili, od wieków otaczany wielką czcią, Cudowny Wizerunek Matki Bożej, przywieziony przez fundatora z Bełza. Z upływem czasu Jasna Góra stała się duchową stolicą Polaków, symbolem wierności i religijności narodu, a także - jako pierwszy klasztor pauliński w Polsce - matką innych domów zakonnych.

01-07-9sm-eksponaty_nr-2037.jpgPrzypadający głównie na XIV i XV wiek wielki rozkwit Zakonu Paulinów na ziemi węgierskiej został gwałtownie zatrzymany przez najazd Turków. Po bitwie pod Mohaczem /1526/, Paulini faktycznie przestali istnieć. Po klęskach na Węgrzech centrum życia zakonnego zaczęło powoli przesuwać się w stronę Jasnej Góry. Fundacja jasnogórskiego klasztoru dała początek innym placówkom w Polsce. Powstały klasztory w Głogowie /1388/, Wieluniu /1394/, Wieruszowie /1401/, Beszowie  /1421/, Brdowie /1436/, Pińczowie /1484/, Oporowie /1453/, Krakowie /1472/, Wielgomłynach /1476/, Konopnicy /1632/, Łęczeszycach /1639/, klasztor św. Barbary w Częstochowie /1646/,  Topolnie /1658/, Warszawie /1661/, Włodawie /1698/, Leśniowie /1706/, Starej Wsi /1728/, Niżnikowie /1740/. Zakonnicy zyskali szybko aprobatę i poparcie zarówno wśród możnych, jak i przede wszystkim pośród szerokiego ogółu wiernych.

01-07-11sm_eksponaty_nr_2055.jpgOd XVII wieku Zakon Paulinów przeżywał swój wielki rozkwit na ziemi polskiej. Paulini weszli w bardzo żywy i prężny okres działalności apostolskiej, nauczania ludu przez misje. Oddawali się również pracom naukowym, niejednokrotnie stawali na czele narodowych zrywów, jako obrońcy wartości kościelnych i narodowych. U schyłku wieku XVIII polska prowincja liczyła ponad 80 klasztorów, rezydencji, parafii i administratur paulińskich. Zakonnicy poszerzali nadal swą działalność duszpasterską, otaczali też opieką chorych i cierpiących. W tym czasie powstają nowe kościoły, oraz budowle w wypracowanym przez paulinów prostym i pięknym stylu architektonicznym i artystycznym.

Rozbiory Polski i okres niewoli narodowej stał się czasem dla Zakonu bardzo trudnym. Trwający w pełni rozkwitu duszpasterskiego i intelektualnego /studia uniwersyteckie na Jasnej Górze i w Krakowie/ zakon dotknęły skutki kasaty zakonów. Ze wszystkich istniejących klasztorów na terenie dawnej Rzeczpospolitej Obojga Narodów, dekrety kasacyjne zaborców zlikwidowały klasztory w Wieluniu, Beszowie, Brdowie, Pińczowie, Oporowie, Warszawie, Wieruszowie, Starej Częstochowie, Konopnicy, Włodawie, Leśniowie, Leśnej Podlaskiej i innych miejscowościach. Z tej dziejowej zawieruchy ocalały tylko dwa klasztory - Jasna Góra i Kraków, stając się niezależnymi od siebie domami.

01-07-4sm-eksponaty_nr_2010.jpgPo odzyskaniu niepodległości przez Polskę, rozpoczęło się powolne odradzanie Zakonu. W 1920 roku połączyły się klasztory jasnogórski i krakowski i zwołano pierwszą kapitułę generalną, na której wybrano generałem zakonu o. Piotra Markiewicza. W tym okresie organizacja zakonu obejmowała trzy domy: Jasną Górę, Kraków i Leśną Podlaską /od 1919 roku/. Po drugiej wojnie światowej Paulini powrócili także do innych dawnych placówek, odzyskując między innymi Warszawę /1950/, Brdów /1952/, Wieruszów /1983/, i inne.

01-07-10sm-eksponaty-nr__2086.jpgObecnie /2008 rok/ Zakon Paulinów ciągle się rozwija. Aktualnie w Polsce, poza Jasną Górą, gdzie mieści się Dom Generalny, paulińskie klasztory i domy zakonne znajdują się: na Bachledówce k/Zakopanego, Biechowie, Błotnicy k/Radomia, Brdowie, Częstochowie - św. Barbara /dom nowicjacki dla braci/, Krakowie na Skałce /klasztor i Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne/, Leśnej Podlaskiej, Leśniowie-Żarkach /dom nowicjacki/, Łęczeszycach, Oporowie k/Kutna, Łukęcinie, Paulinach-Mochowie, Toruniu, Warszawie, Wielgomłynach, Wieruszowie, we Włodawie, Wrocławiu, i Żarkach-Letnisko.

01-07-12sm-picture-429.jpgZakon Paulinów ma także klasztory w innych krajach Europy: na Węgrzech, Chorwacji, w Czechach, na Słowacji, w Niemczech, Francji, Włoszech, na Ukrainie, Białorusi, na Łotwie. Paulini są obecni w Stanach Zjednoczonych /m. in. Doylestown - Amerykańska Częstochowa/, są obecni w Australii, a także na misjach w Republice Południowej Afryki, i Kamerunie. Zakon liczy obecnie ok. 490 zakonników.

01-07-13sm-eksponaty_nr_2054.jpg"Solus, cum Deo Solo" - "Sam na Sam z Bogiem". W ciągu stuleci swego istnienia zmieniał się profil duchowy Zakonu i jego posłannictwo. Z zasadniczego pustelniczego charakteru pierwotnych wspólnot, z biegiem czasu wobec zmieniających się ciągle okoliczności, oraz otwierając się na znaki czasu, nabrał zakon cech wspólnoty kontemplacyjno-czynnej. Duchowość paulińska zawiera się w dość szerokiej grupie cech, które stanowią o charyzmacie zakonu: kontemplacja Boga w samotności, umiłowanie modlitwy liturgicznej i pokuty, uwrażliwiona na znaki czasu działalność duszpasterska jako służba Kościołowi, a nade wszystko kult maryjny, przez ukazywanie Maryi w Kościele i naśladowanie Jej cnót.

 

 
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